Typical elements

Typology, characteristics and particularity are elements of walls and spatial constructions. The characteristic is the uniform internal load bearing construction, which emerges from the circular ground plan and triangular section. Particularities pertain to the outer framework, where carved, semi-carved or completely amorphous stones of large dimensions or stones ground to pebbles or even sand are used. Even in-filling defines shape independently of human desire. In other cases humans design the whole or details purposely, thus enlightening stone constructions with their own culture.

Therefore only the internal construction is typical with the external form representing individual work and fruition of the authors' creative drive. Something is nevertheless common: the outer framework or coat can follow the construction, move from it or withdraw completely, thus taking over the role of form provider.

The most typical object of form following construction, are the trulli in Puglia, clochan in Ireland, crot in Graubuenden or caprile in Elba.

The Maltese girna is the most diverse example of the coat not following the central load bearing construction. Thus we have girnas with circular or square ground plans, they are conical, round, graded or curved. In Corsica the pagliaddiu has an emphasised roof projecting outwards, similar are the barraco in Catalonia or kažun in Istria.

Diversity in objects: pugliese trulli, but totally different in the shape (Puglia, Italy)

The only example of an opened perimeter, which encircles the constructive multi-cell core, is the el bombo in the La Mancha province in Spain. Form is provided by the in-filled material, which can be neither controlled, nor defined. It depends on the angle at which the in-fill material slides downwards. This is the most natural form known to us.

Special elements defining walls and shelters are stairs. They can be added outside as consoles or massive parts of walls, running along the perimeter spirally or straight, built into the construction or added.
Special elements for internal flows are passages for humans or openings for animals, whereby their sizes control movement.

Openings are typical features: usually they are triangular or square thus simplifying construction. Often they are combined with entrances, such as celestial windows or incomplete niches used for storage inside. On the outer wall niches are built as mangers for animal fodder.

Inner body, construction and frame: inner body has typical corbelling in cross section, outside can be seen just normal 'house' (Pagliaddiu (Corse), France)

In vernacular architecture there are typically very few religious signs, but completing elements of trullis are rather impressive. These are designed with invention, individuality and exceptional effect, especially because they are always given fresh coats of lime. These pinacoli are also the most impressive details of vernacular architecture.


Typics in construction: inner space is typical for all objects (and the same), but elevations outside are quite different, equilateral triangle is law
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